The name “Haryana” means “abode of God” in Sanskrit (as the Hindu god’s name is Hari). This state’s capital city is Chandigarh. Interestingly, this city is also the capital of Punjab (which borders Haryana) and is administered as a union territory. In addition, Haryana is bordered by Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh. This is one of the richest states in India, and is particularly well developed in terms of business, industry and food production. Approximately 90% of its population is made up of Hindu people, the remainder being made up of Sikhs, Muslims and Christians.

During the medieval period, many dynasties, kings and rulers held sway over Haryana. In the 1300’s, the Delhi Sultanate was established, and this rulership was responsible for much of India for several hundreds of years. Ancient texts refer to the lushness and fertility of the land at this time. As time passed, several battles were instrumental in the political movements of rulership. Eventually, in 1849, Haryana came to be under British rule when the English finally defeated the Sikhs. India rebelled, fighting for its own independence as a subcontinent. Eventually, Haryana was formed as a state in 1966, despite India’s having achieved an independent status in 1947.

Because Haryana has no coastline, all of its fauna and flora is of the terrestrial type. This state benefits from very different geographical areas; namely, the Shivalik Hills, the Aravalli Range, the semi-desert and the Yamuna-Ghaggar plain. In
Image of the Yadvindra Gardens in Pinjore, Haryana, near Chandigarh.
Yadvindra Gardens in Pinjore, Haryana, near Chandigarh.
addition, an area of over 1500 square kilometres is forested. This lends the area a distinct variety in terms of the plants, birds and wildlife that have made it their home. There are many rivers, streams and lakes in Haryana, adding to the fertility of the land. Summer days can reach a high of up to 50 degrees Celsius, while winters can drop to about 1 degree. Almost all of the rainfall occurs between July and September, which are the monsoon months.

The animal species that can be found in Haryana are as diverse as its vegetation. Some of these include the nilgai, panther, fox, black buck, wild dog, jackal and mongoose. This is a truly rewarding destination for nature lovers travelling to India to explore its natural abundance.

Manufacturing, retail and agriculture are the main industries in Haryana. Car- and auto-component manufacturing companies, mobile phone providers, IT manufacturers, office machinery suppliers, and so on, are major sources of revenue for the people of Haryana. However, of all the industries, agriculture remains its primary ‘money-spinner’. In addition to wheat and rice, which are grown the most and in the largest abundance, this area also provides sugarcane, groundnut, cotton and maize. In addition, much of the fertile land is used to sustain livestock, including buffalo, for dairy farming. Milk and yoghurt are common favourites amongst these people and the dairy is of a more-than-superior standard.

Popular tourist attractions include:

• Kurukshetra (a battle ground where the principles of Karma and Dharma are believed to have been established)
• Badhkal Lake
• Panipat
• Dumdama Lake
• Surajkund (a lake surrounded by the ruins of an ancient temple)
• Panchkula (a temple believed to be the home of the temple of Shakti, a goddess)

For more information, please view: http://haryanatourism.gov.in/

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