INDIA - GOVERNMENT

 

India works on a parliamentary system and is a "Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic Republic". As a Union of States, it is ruled by the laws set out in a Constitution, which was adopted on 26 November 1949 and implemented on 26 January 1950.

The Parliament of India is generally federal, although it displays some unitary features. It is headed by the President, who acts as the Executive of the Union of States, the Council of States (known as Rajya Sabha) and the House of the People (called Lok Sabha). The Lok Sabha is elected by eligible voters, while the Rajya Sabha is elected by those in the State Legislative Assemblies based on proportional representation. The Lok Sabha is changed approximately every five years, while the Rajya Sabha is permanent.

The President is advised by the Council of Ministers, which is, in itself, headed by the Chief Minister, or Prime Minister.
Image of the Indian Parliament buliding
The street view of the Indian Parliament in New Delhi
This body of people makes the decisions that affect the entire country on all levels, including finance, disaster management and legislation. It has to support and motivate its decisions with the House of the People, as these ones have been elected by the Indian residents and they are responsible for the distribution of the country’s administration money.

Each state has a Legislative Assembly and some have an additional State Legislative Council. The President of India elects Governors to preside over each of the different states; a structure that maintains better control. The Prime Minister, or Chief Minister, then advises each Governor, who in turn executes the instructions of the entire Council of Ministers.

The Constitutional history is as follows:
26 January 1950 - Constitution comes into force
1951 – 1952 – First general elections
April 1952 – First elected Parliament (Lok Sabha) comes into existence
April 1957 – Second elected Parliament (Lok Sabha) comes into existence
April 1962 – Third elected Parliament (Lok Sabha) comes into existence
March 1967 – Fourth elected Parliament (Lok Sabha) comes into existence
March 1971 – Fifth elected Parliament (Lok Sabha) comes into existence
March 1977 – Sixth elected Parliament (Lok Sabha) comes into existence
January 1980 – Seventh elected Parliament (Lok Sabha) comes into existence
December 1984 – Eighth elected Parliament (Lok Sabha) comes into existence
December 1989 – Ninth elected Parliament (Lok Sabha) comes into existence
June 1991 – Tenth elected Parliament (Lok Sabha) comes into existence
May 1996 – Eleventh elected Parliament (Lok Sabha) comes into existence
March 1998 – Twelfth elected Parliament (Lok Sabha) comes into existence
October 1999 – Thirteenth elected Parliament (Lok Sabha) comes into existence
May 2004 – Fourteenth elected Parliament (Lok Sabha) comes into existence
April 2009 – Fifteenth elected Parliament (Lok Sabha) comes into existence

The Legislature is responsible for the overseeing of various aspects of the country’s governance, including:
• Administration
• Public grievances and how these are expressed
• Development plans
• International relations
• Passing budgets
• National policies

Parliament can remove Judges of the High Court as well as the Supreme Court, initiate amendments in the Constitution and impeach the President. In certain circumstances, Parliament can also take up legislative power.

Here is the Official India Governmentt web site: http://india.gov.in/


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